在线阅读 --自然科学版 2011年3期《背越式跳高“两轴一杆平行”过杆技术的三维运动学分析》
背越式跳高“两轴一杆平行”过杆技术的三维运动学分析--[在线阅读]
何涛
河北师范大学体育学院, 河北石家庄 050016
起止页码: 318--324页
DOI:
摘要
运用近景动态立体摄像方法,以"两轴一杆平行"观点作为过杆技术评定标准,采用新的过杆时相及技术指标,对中国6名优秀男子背越式跳高选手的过杆技术进行了三维运动学分析.研究表明:在起跳离地瞬间,选手的肩横轴角为73°±3.1°和髋横轴角为72°±8.4°,这样不仅为选手获得更高的腾空高度提供了保证,而且为选手在横杆上形成肩横轴、髋横轴与横杆平行创造了条件;在过杆阶段,选手充分利用头部的状态反射和肢体变化,逐步把围绕身体纵轴的旋转降低到最小,突出了围绕额状轴的翻转,在横杆正上方时身体逐步形成"两轴一杆平行"的过杆技术;若不能很好地控制和利用肩横轴和髋横轴的转动以及头部的状态反射,会造成右肩、右髋过低,肩横轴角、髋横轴角偏大,影响"两轴一杆平行"的技术效果和运动成绩.

Three-dimensional Kinematics Analysis of the Technique of "Two Axis-one Bar Parallelism" in Back Layout
HE Tao
College of Physical Education, Hebei Normal University, Hebei Shijiazhuang 050016, China
Abstract:
By using the near view,dynamic and stereo photograph method,and for the first time based on new technique standard of"two axis-one bar parallelism",and by adopting the new moments of cross bar and its indexes,then by using three-dimensionally kinematics parameter,six top Chinese athletes'techniques of cross bar are analyzed.It shows that at the moment of the take-off the angles of athletes'two-shoulder-axis is 73°±3.1° and two-hip-axis is 72°±8.4°.It makes athletes obtain higher flight,and make a chance to parallel two-shoulder-axis and two-hip-axis to the bar.At the stage of crossbar,to fully employ attitudinal reflex of head and limb change,the technique of "two axis-one bar parallelism" is formed above the bar.Some excellent Chinese athletes can't effectively control and make use of the two-shoulder-axis and two-hip-axis and attitudinal reflex.It makes the right shoulder and the right hip lower than the left,and angles of two-shoulder-axis and two-hip-axis are too big,which influence the"two axis-one bar parallelism" effects and achievements.

收稿日期: 2010-5-10
基金项目: 河北省教育厅科研课题(S2010303);河北省留学回国人员科技资助项目(20100105)

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