在线阅读 --自然科学版 2021年1期《石家庄市一次持续性霾过程气象成因分析及其对能见度的影响》
石家庄市一次持续性霾过程气象成因分析及其对能见度的影响--[在线阅读]
张晓1, 钤伟妙2, 陈静2
1. 石家庄学院 资源与环境科学学院, 河北 石家庄 050035;
2. 石家庄市气象局, 河北 石家庄 050081
起止页码: 93--100页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.nse.202105002
摘要
基于地面气象观测数据和环境空气质量监测数据,对2015年12月6~13日石家庄市一次持续性重度霾污染过程进行分析,结果表明:空气湿度大、地面风速小、天气静稳为此次持续性霾的发生和维持提供了有利的气象条件;污染过程中逆温主要为不贴地逆温,逆温的形成滞后于污染的形成,霾严重时段逆温顶发展至高空1km以上,逆温层厚大于1km;污染的大部分时段,能见度在1km以下波动,当PM2.5质量浓度达到一定水平后,相对湿度对能见度的影响高于PM2.5质量浓度;不同情景计算表明,重污染过程中降低相对湿度和控制PM2.5质量浓度均能改善大气能见度,但相对湿度是影响能见度的关键.

Meteorological Factors Analysis of a Long-lasting Haze Event and Influence on Visibility in Shijiazhuang City
ZHANG Xiao1, QIAN Weimiao2, CHEN Jing2
1. College of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Shijiazhuang University, Hebei Shijiazhuang 050035, China;
2. Shijiazhuang Meteorological Bureau, Hebei Shijiazhuang 050081, China
Abstract:
A long-term severe haze pollution process in Shijiazhuang was analyzed using meteorological observational data and air quality monitoring data during December 6~13,2015.Results showed that Shijiazhuang was dominated by low surface wind speed,high air humidity and static stable weather which provided favorable meteorological conditions for the long-lasting haze.The formation of inversion layer lagged behind the formation of haze pollution,and during the period of severe haze,the top height of inversion layer was greater than 1km,and the thickness of inversion layer was greater than 1km.During most of the pollution period,the visibility fluctuated below 1km and when the concentration of PM2.5 reached a certain level, the visibility was dominated by relative humidity.Calculations in different scenarios showed that reducing relative humidity and controlling the concentration of PM2.5 during heavy pollution improved visibility,but relative humidity was the key to visibility.

收稿日期: 2019-12-12
基金项目: 河北省青年科学基金(D2019106042);石家庄市科学技术研究与发展计划(171241143A)

参考文献:
[1]尹志聪,王会军,郭文利.华北黄淮地区冬季雾和霾的时空气候变化特征[J].中国科学:地球科学,2015,45(5):649-655.doi:10.1360/zd-2015-45-5-649 YIN Zhicong,WANG Huijun,GUO Wenli.Climatic Change Features of Fog and Haze in Winter over North China and Huang-Huai Area[J].Science China:Earth Sciences,2015,45(5):649-655.
[2]魏哲,杨晶,王丽涛,等.2013年1月邯郸市严重霾天气的污染特征分析[J].环境科学学报,2014,34(5):1118-1124.doi:10.13671/j.hjkxxb.2014.0176 WEI Zhe,YANG Jing,WANG Litao,et al.Characteristics of the Severe Haze Episode in Handan City in January,2013[J].Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae,2014,34(5):1118-1124.
[3]付桂琴,张迎新,谷永利,等.河北省霾日变化及成因[J].气象与环境学报,2014,30(1):51-56.doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-503X.2014.01.008 FU Guiqin,ZHANG Yingxin,GU Yongli,et al.Change of Haze Day and Its Forming Reason in Hebei Province[J].Jourmal of Meteorology and Environment,2014,30(1):51-56.
[4]沈铁迪,王体健,陈璞珑,等.南京城区夏秋季能见度与PM2.5化学成分的关系[J].中国环境科学,2015,35(3):652-658. SHEN Tiedi,WANG Tijian,CHEN Pulong,et al.Relationship Between Atmospheric Visibility and Chemical Composition of PM2.5 in the Summer and Autumn of Nanjing[J].China Environmental Science,2015,35(3):652-658.
[5]徐薇,修光利,陶俊,等.上海市大气散射消光特征及其与颗粒物化学组成关系研究[J].环境科学学报,2015,35(2):379-385.doi:10.13671/j.hjkxxb.2014.0817 XU Wei,XIU Guangli,TAO Jun,et al.Characterization of Light Scattering Extinction and the Relationship with Particle Components in Shanghai[J].Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae,2015,35(2):379-385.
[6]于兴娜,马佳,朱彬,等.南京北郊秋冬季相对湿度及气溶胶理化特性对大气能见度的影响[J].环境科学,2015,36(6):1919-1925.doi:10.13227/j.hjkx.2015.06.002 YU Xingna,MA Jia,ZHU Bin,et al.Effects of Relative Humidity and Aerosol Physicochemical Properties on Atmospheric Visibility in Northern Suburb of Nanjing[J].Environmental Science,2015,36(6):1919-1925.
[7]吴珂,包云轩,蔡敏,等.苏州市一次重霾污染天气过程的数值模拟[J].气象科学,2019,39(1):104-116.doi:10.3969/2018jms.0046 WU Ke,BAO Yunxuan,CAI Min,et al.Numerical Simulation on a Heavy Haze Pollution Weather Process in Suzhou City[J].Journal of the Meteorological Sciences,2019,39(1):104-116.
[8]ZHANG Yang,HUANG Wei,CAI Tianqi,et al.Concentrations and Chemical Compositions of Fine Particles (PM2.5) During Haze and Non-haze Days in Beijing[J].Atmospheric Research,2016(174):62-69.doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.02.003
[9]吕翔,刘端阳,李冰峰,等.徐州持续性霾过程的季节特征分析[J].气象,2015,41(9):1134-1143.doi:10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2015.08.011 LYU Xiang,LIU Duanyang,LI Bingfeng,et al.Seasonal Characteristics of Consecutive Haze Events in Xuzhou[J].Meteorological Monthly,2015,41(9):1134-1143.
[10]刘丽伟,李文才,尚可政,等.京津冀地区一次严重霾天气过程及其影响因素分析[J].气象与环境学报,2015,31(3):35-42.doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-503X.2015.03.00 LIU Liwei,LI Wencai,SHANG Kezheng,et al.Analysis of a Serious Haze Process and Its Impact Factors in Jing-Jin-Ji Region[J].Journal of Meteorology and Environment,2015,31(3):35-42.
[11]陈锦超,董雪玲,张婉,等.北京市霾天PM2.5污染特征及其与气象因素的关系[J].环境科学与技术,2018,41(8):87-94.doi:10.19672/j.cnki.1003-6504.2018.08.014 CHEN Jinchao,DONG Xueling,ZHANG Wan,et al.Characteristics of PM2.5 in Haze Days in Beijing and Its Relationship with Meteorological Factors[J].Environmental Science and Technology,2018,41(8):87-94.
[12]杨晓亮,杨敏,李江波,等.一次太行山焚风对霾强度的影响分析[J].气象,2018,44(2):313-319.doi:10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2018.02.011 YANG Xiaoliang,YANG Min,LI Jiangbo,et al.Impact Analysis of a Taihang Mountain Fohn on Haze Intensity[J].Meteorological Monthly,2018,44(2):313-319.
[13]周静博,任毅斌,洪纲,等.利用SPAMS研究石家庄市冬季连续灰霾天气的污染特征及成因[J].环境科学,2015,36(11):3972-3980.doi:10.13227/j.hjkx.2015.11.005 ZHOU Jingbo,REN Yibin,HONG Gang,et al.Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of a Multi-day Haze in the Winter of Shijiazhuang Using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer(SPAMS)[J].Environmental Science,2015,36(11):3972-3980.
[14]周静博,李治国,路娜,等.抗战胜利70周年大阅兵期间石家庄大气细颗粒物在线来源解析[J].环境科学,2016,37(8):2855-2862.doi:10.13227/j.hjkx.2016.08.005 ZHOU Jingbo,LI Zhiguo,LU Na,et al.Online Sources About Atmospheric Fine Particles During the 70th Anniversary of Victory Parade in Shijiazhuang[J].Environmental Science,2016,37(8):2855-2862.
[15]刘景云,刘子锐,温天雪,等.石家庄秋季一次典型霾污染过程水溶性离子粒径分布特征[J].环境科学,2016,37(9):3258-3267.doi:10.13227/j.hjkx.2016.09.003 LIU Jingyun,LIU Zirui,WEN Tianxue,et al.Characteristics of the Size Distribution of Water Soluble Inorganic Ions During a Typical Haze Pollution in the Autumn in Shijiazhuang[J].Environmental Science,2016,37(9):3258-3267.
[16]陈静,杨鹏,韩军彩,等.基于高分辨率MARGA数据分析石家庄PM2.5成分谱特征[J].中国环境科学,2015,35(9):2594-2604. CHEN Jing,YANG Peng,HAN Juncai,et al.Analysis of PM2.5 Spectrum Characteristics in Shijiazhuang Based on High Resolution MARGA Data[J].China Environmental Science,2015,35(9):2594-2604.
[17]陈静,张艳品,杨鹏,等.石家庄一次沙尘气溶胶污染过程及光学特性[J].中国环境科学,2016,36(4):979-989.doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6923.2016.04.003 CHEN Jing,ZHANG Yanpin,YANG Peng,et al.Pollution Process and Optical Properties During a Dust Aerosol Event in Shijiazhuang[J].China Environmental Science,2016,36(4):979-989.
[18]杨洋,王红磊,侯雪伟,等.石家庄一次持续性霾过程形成原因及气溶胶垂直探空分析[J].环境科学学报,2017,37(3):824-832.doi:10.13671/j.hjkxxb.2016.0264 YANG Yang,WANG Honglei,HOU Xuewei,et al.Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of a Long-term Haze Episode and the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Concentration in Shijiazhuang[J].Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae,2017,37(3):824-832.
[19]陈静,钤伟妙,韩军彩,等.石家庄市秋季典型天气背景下重污染特征分析[J].气象与环境学报,2015,31(4):42-50.doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-503X.2015.04.007 CHEN Jing,QIAN Weimiao,HAN Juncai,et al.Pollution Characteristic Under Typical Weather Background in Autumn over Shijiazhuang[J].Journal of Meteorology and Environment,2015,31(4):42-50.
[20]曹伟华,梁旭东,李青春.北京一次持续性雾霾过程的阶段性特征及影响因子分析[J].气象学报,2013,71(5):940-951.doi:10.11676/qxxb2013.072 CAO Weihua,LIANG Xudong,LI Qingchun.A Study of the Stageful Characteristics and Influencing Factors of a Long-lasting Fog/haze Event in Beijing[J].Acta Meteorologica Sinica,2013,71(5):940-951.
[21]尉鹏,任阵海,王文杰,等.2014年10月中国东部持续重污染天气成因分析[J].环境科学研究,2015,28(5):676-683.doi:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2015.05.02 WEI Peng,REN Zhenhai,WANG Wenjie,et al.Analysis of Meteorological Conditions and Formation Mechanisms of Lasting Heavy Air Pollution in Eastern China in October 2014[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2015,28(5):676-683.
[22]XU J,BERGIN M H,YU X,et al.Measurement of Aerosol Chemical,Physical and Radiative Properties in the Yangtze Delta Region of China[J].Atmospheric Environment,2002,36(2):161-173.doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00455-1