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在线阅读 --哲学社会科学版 2020年6期《从精神医学到存在哲学——论雅斯贝尔斯的《时代的精神处境》》
从精神医学到存在哲学——论雅斯贝尔斯的《时代的精神处境》--[在线阅读]
黄藿
台湾中国文化大学 哲学系, 台湾 台北 11114
起止页码: 12--20页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.psse.2020.06.002
摘要
德国哲学家雅斯贝尔斯早期的著作《时代的精神处境》是一本值得重视的小书。雅斯贝尔斯从精神医学的临床医师与研究者,转任心理学教授,最后再转任哲学教授,本书是他学术研究兴趣转向存在哲学的转折点,在他学术生涯的转型上具有关键性的价值与意义。他对早年精神医学界以实证科学态度研究精神疾病的方法感到不满,认为实证方法建立在笛卡儿心物二元论哲学观点上,遏制了建立全人的统整性精神病理学的企图。值得注意的是,本书成书于20世纪30年代初,正是德国第一次世界大战战败之后,遭遇世界经济大萧条和纳粹在德国崛起的年代,德国上下处于焦躁不安的境况之中。它可视为雅斯贝尔斯从精神医学与存在哲学双重观点对当时德国社会集体的精神状况所作的深入观察、省思与病理诊断,具有社会心理学或群众心理学的意义。该书解释了存在哲学的意义,并对其内容与发展方向勾勒出轮廓。最后,他认为对未来会发生什么的关心,有助于对存在哲学的沉思预测和对超越的积极规划。

From Psychiatry to Existential Philosophy-On Karl Jaspers' Die geistige Situation der Zeit
HWANG Hwo
Department of Philosophy, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 11114, China
Abstract:
Die geistige Situation der Zeit, an early work of German philosopher Karl Jaspers, is a small book worthy of attention. Jaspers changed from a practitioner and a researcher in psychiatry in the beginning to a professor of psychology and then to a professor of philosophy. This book marks the turning point of his academic career to the existential philosophy (Existenzphilosophie), and has key value in the transformation of his academic career. He was dissatisfied with the method used by psychiatrists to study mental diseases with empirical scientific attitude in his early years, and thought that the empirical method was based on Cartesian dualism of mind and matter philosophy, which hindered the attempt to establish holistic psychopathology of the whole person. It is worth noting that this book was written in the early 1930s, just after Germany's defeat in World War I, in the era of the Great Depression of the World Economy and the rise of Nazis in power, and the whole society was filled with turbulence and anxiety. It can be regarded as Jaspers' extensive and in-depth observation and reflection and also as a psychopathological diagnosis of the German society at that time from the dual perspectives of psychiatry and philosophy, which has the significance of social psychology or mass psychology. This book explains the significance of existential philosophy and outlines its content and development direction. Finally, he thinks that caring about what will happen in the future is helpful for contemplative prediction of existential philosophy and active planning of transcendence.

收稿日期: 2020-06-15
基金项目:

参考文献:
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