在线阅读 --自然科学版 2020年6期《鸡嗉子榕缩腹榕小蜂触角形态及其感器的性二型》
鸡嗉子榕缩腹榕小蜂触角形态及其感器的性二型--[在线阅读]
谢华, 李成星, 张媛, 李宗波
西南林业大学 生物多样性保护学院, 云南省森林灾害预警与控制重点实验室, 云南 昆明 650224
起止页码: 531--538页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.nse.2020.06.012
摘要
使用环境扫描电镜对缩腹榕小蜂雌雄蜂触角及其感器类型、数量、分布等进行了详细的观察,分析了感器的形态性状和生态适应性.缩腹榕小蜂触角具有明显的雌雄二型性,雌蜂触角长862.75±20.65μm,由转节、柄节、梗节和10个鞭小节组成的鞭节构成,分布着毛形感器、刺形感器(Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型)、锥形感器(Ⅰ型)、多孔板形感器(无沟型)、栓锥型乳突状感器、蒲姆氏鬃毛6类7种感器;雄蜂触角大幅度退化,长度仅为345.18±9.44μm,仅有柄节、梗节和1个触角小节构成的鞭节,着生有毛形感器、锥形感器(Ⅱ型)、多孔板形感器(具沟型)、腔锥形感器、蒲姆氏鬃毛5类5种感器.雌蜂触角感器数量明显大于雄蜂,同类感器的长度、分布或其孔密度与雄蜂有着显著的差异,这种适应性进化可能与雌蜂的果外寄主定位和产卵行为有关,雄蜂与果内配偶识别相联系.研究结果将有助于进一步诠释雌雄蜂不同进化压力下的形态分化、繁殖行为和信息利用与分配策略.

Sexual Dimorphism in Antennal Morphology and Sensilla Ultrastructure of Apocrypta sp.(Hymenoptera:Agaonidae) in Ficus semicordata
XIE Hua, LI Chengxing, ZHANG Yuan, LI Zongbo
Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province, College of Biodiversity Conservation, Southwest Forestry University, Yunnan Kunming 650224, China
Abstract:
Antennae and its sensillum in the female and male Apocrypta sp.were examined by using environmental scanning electron microscope, and then were discussed on the basis of evolutionary adaptation of morphological characteristics.Apocrypta sp.has a typical sex dimorphism on the whole antennae.Antennae of female fig wasps are 862.75±20.65μm in length,and consist of a radicula, scape, pedicel,and flagellum which is composed of 10 flagellomeres.Seven morphological sensillar types were identified in females,including trichoid sensilla,chaetica sensilla (type Ⅰ and Ⅱ),basiconic sensilla (type Ⅰ),multiporous placoid sensilla (non-grooved types), basiconic capitate peg sensilla,and böhm's bristles.Antennae of male fig wasps are substantially reduced,345.18±9.44μm in length,and comprised of a scape, pedicel and flagellum that contains 1 antennomere.Five sensillar types were found in males,including trichoid sensilla,basiconic sensilla (type Ⅱ),multiporous placoid sensilla (grooved types),coeloconic sensilla, and böhm's bristles.The abundance of antennal sensilla of female far exceeded that of males.Significant differences were observed in the sensillar morphology,distribution,or pore density of the same type of antennal sensilla between female and male fig wasps.The pressure-adaptive morphology of the various types of the antennal sensilla demonstrated the positive dependence on the morphological division and ecological adaptation.Due to different ecological functions of females and males, they produced the pressure-adaptive morphologies,which correlated with the oviposition behaviors of females and with the mate choice of males in fig cavity.Our results will facilitate the understanding of the intrinsic relationships between the morphological division,reproductive behavior,and chemical utilization and partition in the sexual selection of fig wasps.

收稿日期: 2019-09-20
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(31760107,31100279);云南省“高层次人才培养支持计划”青年拔尖人才项目(51900110)

参考文献:
[1]LIU Z X,YANG P,ZHANG Y,et al.Antennae and the Role of Olfaction and Contact Stimulation in Mate Recognition by Males of the Pollinating Fig Wasp Ceratosolen Gravelyi (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae)[J].Journal of Natural History,2019,53(13/14):779-795.doi:10.1080/00222933.2019.1609112
[2]KEIL T A.Morphology and Development of the Peripheral Olfactory Organs[M]//HANSSON B S.Book Morphology and Development of the Peripheral Olfactory Organs.Berlin Heidelberg:Springer,1999:5-47.
[3]RENTHAL R,VELASQUEZ D,OLMOS D,et al.Structure and Distribution of Antennal Sensilla of the Red Imported Fire Ant[J].Micron,2003,34(8):405-413.doi:10.1016/s0968-4328(03)00050-7
[4]彩万志.普通昆虫学[M].北京:中国农业大学出版社,2001:157-177. CAI Wanzhi.General Entomology[M].Beijing:China Agricultural University Press,2001:157-177.
[5]HARDIE J,GIBSON G,WYATT T.Insect Behaviours Associated with Resource Finding[M]//HARDIE J,GIBSON G,WYATT T W.Symposium-royal Entomological Society of London.UK:CABI Publishing,1999:87-110.
[6]GAO Y,LUO L Z,HAMMOND A.Antennal Morphology,Structure and Sensilla Distribution in Microplitis Pallidipes (Hymenoptera:Braconidae)[J].Micron,2007,38(6):684-693.doi:10.1016/j.micron.2006.09.004
[7]OCHIENG S A,PARK K C,ZHU J W,et al.Functional Morphology of Antennal Chemoreceptors of the Parasitoid Microplitis Croceipes (Hymenoptera:Braconidae)[J].Arthropod Structure & Development,2000,29(3):231-240.doi:10.1016/s1467-8039(01)00008-1
[8]ONAGBOLA E O,FADAMIRO H Y.Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies of Antennal Sensilla of Pteromalus Cerealellae (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae)[J].Micron,2008,39(5):526-535.doi:10.1016/j.micron.2007.08.001
[9]STAUDACHER E M,GEBHARDT M,DVRR V.Antennal Movements and Mechanoreception:Neurobiology of Active Tactile Sensors[M]//SIMPSON S J.Advances in Insect Physiology.New York:Academic Press,2005:49-205.doi:10.1016/s0065-2806(05)32002-9
[10]YADAV P,BORGES R M.The Insect Ovipositor as a Volatile Sensor Within a Closed Microcosm[J].The Journal of Experimental Biology,2017,220(9):1554-1557.doi:10.1242/jeb.152777
[11]杨培,李宗波,杨大荣,等.木瓜榕食果榕小蜂雌蜂触角感器的扫描电镜观察[J].生物学杂志,2017,34(4):11-16.doi:10.3969/j.issn.2095-1736.2017.04.011 YANG Pei,LI Zongbo,YANG Darong,et al.Morphological Characteristics of Antennal Sensilla of Female Sycophaga sp Observed with Scanning Electron Miscroscopy[J].Journal of Biology,2017,34(4):11-16.
[12]AMORNSAK W,CRIBB B,GORDH G.External Morphology of Antennal Sensilla of Trichogramma Australicum Girault (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae)[J].International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology,1998,27(2):67-82.doi:10.1016/s0020-7322(98)00003-8
[13]WALKER W B,JACQUIN-JOLY E,HILL S R.Functional Characterization of Insect Chemoreceptors:Receptivity Range,Expression and Evolution[J].Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution,2016(4):37-38.doi:10.3389/fevo.2016.00037
[14]STEINBRECHT R A.Pore Structures in Insect Olfactory Sensilla:A Review of Data and Concepts[J].International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology,1997,26(3/4):229-245.doi:10.1016/s0020-7322(97)00024-x
[15]KUNDANATI L,GUNDIAH N.Biomechanics of Substrate Boring by Fig Wasps[J].The Journal of Experimental Biology,2014,217(11):1946-1948.doi:10.1242/jeb.098228
[16]SOUZA C D,PEREIRA R A S,MARINHO C R,et al.Diversity of Fig Glands is Associated with Nursery Mutualism in Fig Trees[J].American Journal of Botany,2015,102(10):1564-1577.doi:10.3732/ajb.1500279
[17]GRISON-PIGÉ L,SALAGER J L,HOSSAERT-MCKEY M,et al.Carbon Allocation to Volatiles and Other Reproductive Components in Male Ficus carica (Moraceae)[J].American Journal of Botany,2001,88(12):2214-2220.
[18]张媛,李宗波,翟树伟,等.鸡嗉子榕内传粉小蜂与非传粉小蜂的繁殖稳定共存机制研究[J].应用昆虫学报,2016,53(2):340-346.doi:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2016.045 ZHANG Yuan,LI Zongbo,ZHAI Shuwei,et al.Reproductive Behaviors Facilitating Stable Coexistence Between Pollinating and Non-pollinating Fig Wasps in Ficus semicordata[J].Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology,2016,53(2):340-346.
[19]DAHAKE A,STÖCKL A L,FOSTER J J,et al.The Roles of Vision and Antennal Mechanoreception in Hawkmoth Flight Control[J].eLife,2018(7):e37606.doi:10.7554/eLife.37606
[20]BERG C,CORNER E.Flora Malesiana,Series I-seed Plants Volume 17,Part 2,Moraceae-Ficus[M].Leiden:National Herbarium Nederland,2005.
[21]WEIBLEN G D.How to Be a Fig Wasp[J].Annual Review of Entomology,2002,47(1):299-330.doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145213
[22]COOK J M,RASPLUS J Y.Mutualists with Attitude:Coevolving Fig Wasps and Figs[J].Trends in Ecology & Evolution,2003,18(5):241-248.doi:10.1016/s0169-5347(03)00062-4
[23]CRUAUD A,RØNSTED N,CHANTARASUWAN B,et al.An Extreme Case of Plant-insect Co-diversification:Figs and Fig-pollinating Wasps[J].Systematic Biology,2012,61(6):1029-1047.doi:10.1093/sysbio/sys068
[24]BORGES R M.On the Air:Broadcasting and Reception of Volatile Messages in Brood-site Pollination Mutualisms[M]//BLANDE J D,GLINWOOD R.Deciphering Chemical Language of Plant Communication.Cham:Springer International Publishing,2016:227-255.doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33498-1_10
[25]COMPTON S G,NOORT van S.Southern African Fig Wasps (Hymenoptera:Chalcidoidea):Resource Utilization and Host Relationships[J].Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen,1992,95(4):423-435.
[26]段柱标,彭艳琼,杨大荣,等.高榕隐头果内小蜂群落的动态变化[J].生态学报,2005,25(10):2589-2594. DUAN Zhubiao,PENG Yanqiong,YANG Darong,et al.Fig Wasp Community in the Syconia of Ficus altissima[J].Acta Ecologica Sinica,2005,25(10):2589-2594.
[27]HOSSAERT-MCKEY M,SOLER C,SCHATZ B,et al.Floral Scents:Their Roles in Nursery Pollination Mutualisms[J].Chemoecology,2010,20(2):75-88.doi:10.1007/s00049-010-0043-5
[28]ZACHARUK R Y.Ultrastructure and Function of Insect Chemosensilla[J].Annual Review of Entomology,1980,25(1):27-47.doi:10.1146/annurev.en.25.010180.000331
[29]BASIBUYUK H H,QUICKE D L J.Gross Morphology of Multiporous Plate Sensilla in the Hymenoptera (Insecta)[J].Zoologica Scripta,1999,28(1/2):51-67.doi:10.1046/j.1463-6409.1999.00007.x
[30]BAAREN van J,BOIVIN G,BOURDAIS D,et al.Antennal Sensilla of Hymenopteran Parasitic Wasps:Variations Linked to Host Exploitation Behavior[M]//MENDEZ-VILAS A,DIAZ J.Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microscopy.Badajoz:Formatex,2007:345-352.
[31]WARE A B,COMPTON S G.Repeated Evolution of Elongate Multiporous Plate Sensilla in Female Fig Wasps (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae:Agaoninae)[J].Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen,1992,95(2):275-292.
[32]李宗波,杨培,赵健,等.传粉榕小蜂雌蜂多孔板形感器的形态与适应进化[J].应用昆虫学报,2014,51(4):1086-1097.doi:10.7679/j.issn.2095-1353.2014.129 LI Zongbo,YANG Pei,ZHAO Jian,et al.Morphological Adaptation and Evolution of Multiporous Placoid Sensilla in Female Agaonids (Chalcidoidea,Hymenotera)[J].Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology,2014,51(4):1086-1097.
[33]DIAKOVA A V,MAKAROVA A A,POLILOV A A.Between Extreme Simplification and Ideal Optimization:Antennal Sensilla Morphology of Miniaturized Megaphragma Wasps (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae)[J].Peer J,2018,6(5):e6005.doi:10.7717/peerj.6005
[34]OZAKI M,WADA-KATSUMATA A,FUJIKAWA K,et al.Ant Nestmate and Non-nestmate Discrimination by a Chemosensory Sensillum[J].Science,2005,309(5732):311-314.doi:10.1126/science.1105244
[35]ULENBERG S A,NUEBEL B K.The Oviposition of Apocrypta Coquerel (Fig Wasp Parasites,Hymenoptera,Chalcidoidea,Torymidae)[J].Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen,1982,85(4):607-613.
[36]ZHEN W Q,HUANG D W,XIAO J H,et al.Ovipositor Length of Three Apocrypta Species:Effect on Oviposition Behavior and Correlation with Syconial Thickness[J].Phytoparasitica,2005,33(2):113-120.doi:10.1007/bf03029967
[37]LI Z B,YANG P,PENG Y Q,et al.Ultrastructure of Antennal Sensilla of Female Ceratosolen Solmsi Marchali (Hymenoptera:Chalcidoidea:Agaonidae:Agaoninae)[J].Canadian Entomologist,2009,141(5):463-477.doi:10.4039/n09-011
[38]李宗波,杨培,彭艳琼,等.木瓜榕传粉榕小蜂雌蜂触角感器的分布和超微形态[J].昆虫学报,2012,55(11):1272-1281. LI Zongbo,YANG Pei,PENG Yanqiong,et al.Distribution and Ultramorphology of Antennal Sensilla in Female Ceratosolen Emarginatus Mayr (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae),a Specific Pollinator of Ficus auriculata[J].Acta Entomologica Sinica,2012,55(11):1272-1281.
[39]JANDÉR K C.Indirect Mutualism:Ants Protect Fig Seeds and Pollen Dispersers from Parasites[J].Ecological Entomology,2015,40(5):500-510.doi:10.1111/een.12215
[40]YANG P,LI Z B,YANG D R,et al.Comparison of the Antennal Sensilla of Females of Four Fig-wasps Associated with Ficus auriculata[J].Acta Oecologica,2018,90:99-108.doi:10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.002
[41]KRISHNAN A,JOSHI K A,ABRAHAM A,et al.Finding Hidden Females in a Crowd:Mate Recognition in Fig Wasps[J].Acta Oecologica,2014,57:80-87.doi:10.1016/j.actao.2013.03.015