检索
在线阅读 --哲学社会科学版 2020年3期《“吉尔伽美什肩上的弗兰肯斯坦”——西方现代科幻小说中的科技伦理反思》
“吉尔伽美什肩上的弗兰肯斯坦”——西方现代科幻小说中的科技伦理反思--[在线阅读]
黎新华
河北师范大学 大学外语教学部, 河北 石家庄 050024
起止页码: 94--101页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.psse.2020.03.011
摘要
西方现代科幻小说的科技伦理反思主题,主要是通过对现代生命科学与生物技术所可能导致的风险与危机的深切忧虑来表达的。《美丽新世界》《羚羊与秧鸡》《和谐》以及更早的《弗兰肯斯坦》《莫罗博士的岛》等作品通过描述"人造人""实验室婴儿""设计婴儿""器官移植""基因编辑""意识控制"等技术的运用,深刻呈现了由科学技术带来的人类伦理危机甚至生存危机。更为晚近的西方现代科幻小说则通过对未来人类灭绝、人类社会终结的末世图景书写表达了对于现代生命科学、生物技术中所包含的科技伦理问题的反思,熔铸着更为深入广泛的现代性批判精神。西方现代科幻小说以审美的、艺术的方式提示我们,在现代科学技术的高歌猛进之中,必须充分考量现代性建构中的科技维度所面临的种种风险,必须运用哲学的智慧进行更为审慎、理性的规划与引导,使科学技术能够沿着更为平衡稳健的方向发展。

“Frankenstein on Gilgamesh's Shoulders”——Reflections on Ethical Issues of Science and Technology in Modern Western Science Fiction
LI Xinhua
Department of Foreign Language Education, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024, China
Abstract:
The reflections on the ethical issues of science and technology in modern Western science fiction is mainly expressed through deep concern about the risks and crises that modern life science and biotechnology may lead to. Brave New World(1932), Oryx and Crake (2003), Harmony (2015), and earlier works such as Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) and The Island of Doctor Moreau(1898) illustrate human ethical crisis and even survival crisis brought about by science and technology via depicting the use of such technologies as "artificial man," "laboratory baby," "design baby," "organ transplantation," "gene editing" and "consciousness control." The more recent works express a reflection on the ethical issues of science and technology through the depiction of future extinction of human beings and the end of human society, imbued with deeper and broader criticism of modernity. Modern Western science fiction reminds us in an aesthetic and artistic way that in the rapid development of modern science and technology, we must fully consider the various risks we are facing in the dimension of science and technology in the construction of modernity, and we must use the wisdom of philosophy to make more prudent and rational planning and guidance, so as to make science and technology develop in a more balanced and steady way.

收稿日期: 2020-02-05
基金项目: 河北省社会科学基金项目"当代西方反乌托邦小说叙事伦理转型研究"(项目编号:HB19WW003)

参考文献:
[1][美]迈克尔·桑德尔.反对完美:科技与人性的正义之战[M].黄慧慧译.北京:中信出版社,2013.
[2][美]罗伯特·诺齐克.无政府、国家和乌托邦[M].姚大志译.北京:中国社会科学出版社,2008.
[3]赵汀阳.完美是最好的吗?(导论)[A].[美]迈克尔·桑德尔.反对完美:科技与人性的正义之战[M].黄慧慧译.北京:中信出版社,2013.
[4][英]威廉·戴维斯.幸福乌托邦:科学如何测量和控制人们的快乐[M].常莹,郭丹杰译.北京:新华出版社,2016.
[5][日]伊藤计划.和谐[M].曲铭译.上海:上海文艺出版社,2014.
[6]Anthony Giddens.The Consequences of Modernity[M].Cambridge:Polity Press,1990.
[7][美]乔·奥·赫茨勒.乌托邦思想史[M].张兆麟等译.北京:商务印书馆,1990.
[8][以色列]尤瓦尔·赫拉利.人类简史:从动物到上帝[M].林俊宏译.北京:中信出版社,2014.
[9]韩跃红.护卫生命的尊严——现代生物技术中的伦理问题研究[M].北京:人民出版社,2005.
[10]Margaret Atwood.Oryx and Crake[M].London:Virago Press, 2013.