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在线阅读 --哲学社会科学版 2020年3期《上古神话的完整架构及其神本指向》
上古神话的完整架构及其神本指向--[在线阅读]
祁志祥
上海政法学院 国学研究所, 上海 201701
起止页码: 15--31页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.psse.2020.03.002
摘要
上古神话是原初思想界神本主义的典型表征,也是周代"人的觉醒"的思想启蒙面临的反题。但现有思想史几乎都忽略了这个话题。上古神话是由创世神话、历史神话、英雄神话、图腾神话构成的神话系统。其中,历史神话是上古神话的主体,它是关于历史人物三皇五帝的神话传说。在这种传说中,燧人氏被说成是神秘的熟食文明始祖,伏羲氏是"蛇身人首"的渔猎文明始祖,神农氏是"人面龙颜"的农耕文明始祖;而黄帝则是亦人亦神的天才发明家,颛顼是民神分离、重树神威的宗教改革家,喾是神异仁德的帝王,尧是眉有八彩、其智如神的圣王,舜是目有重瞳、屡有神助的天子。关于上古神话,后世的文字典籍有多种记载,需要在广采博取的基础上综合权衡,细加甄别,对上古神话的系统结构作出逻辑自洽的实证研究,方能充分揭示上古神话万物有灵、神灵至上的思想意义。

On a Complete Framework of Ancient Mythology and its Theocentric Orientation
QI Zhixiang
Institute of Chinese Studies, Shanghai University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 201701, China
Abstract:
The ancient Chinese mythology is a typical representation of the primitive theocentric ideological, and also the antithesis of the ideological enlightenment of the "awakening of man" in the Zhou Dynasty. However, the current ideological history almost ignores this topic. The ancient mythology is a myth system composed of Creation myths, historical myths, heroic myths and Totem myths. Among them, historical myths are the main body of ancient mythology, which are myths about the historical figures of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. In these legends, Suiren-shi is said to be the ancestor of the mysterious cooked food civilization; Fuxi-shi, "with a snake body and human head," the ancestor of the fishing and hunting civilization; Shennong-shi, "with a combination of human and dragon face," the ancestor of the farming civilization; the Yellow Emperor, a genius inventor, was both human and divine; Zhuanxu, a religious reformer, separated the people from the gods and restored the power of the gods; Ku was a mysterious emperor of extraordinary benevolence; Yao, a holy king with eight-color eyebrows and a mind like God; Shun, a son of heaven with double pupils in both eyes, received help from Gods many times. Regarding ancient mythology, there were different records in later writings, which need to be comprehensively weighed and carefully screened on the basis of wide selection, and a logical and self-consistent empirical study on the system structure of ancient mythology can fully reveal the ideological significance of ancient myths that all things have spirit and gods are supreme.

收稿日期: 2020-01-10
基金项目: 国家社会科学基金后期资助项目"先秦思想史:从‘神本’到‘人本’"(项目编号:19FZXB060)

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