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在线阅读 --教育科学版 2020年2期《中国高中教育发展的特征与启示》
中国高中教育发展的特征与启示--[在线阅读]
储朝晖
中国教育科学研究院, 北京 100088
起止页码: 29--36页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.ese.2020.02.007
摘要
中国高中教育发展取得了巨大成就。1979年前,高中基本特征是政治本位,高中资源较为短缺,接受高中教育相当于中国的高等教育;1979年后,高中基本特征是分数本位,在小学、初中依次实现普及并在数量上出现供大于求现象的背景下,高中增长依然较慢。“普九”与1999年高校扩招带动普通高中快速发展,同时也出现以“县中现象”为特征的高中教育理念取向偏离,以及等级供给的供求矛盾,公平、多样性而有质量的教育需求成为此后高中教育需求的主要矛盾,并影响到高中的教学、管理、评价。目前高中教育还存在较重的应试倾向,高中教育受高考招生的单一评价制约,办学模式单一,难以建立良性教育生态。办学主体多样化与管理、评价的多样性才能更有效提升供给,提供高中教育资源的多样性选择,通过选择形成提高质量和效率的自我完善机制,满足学生多样性的成长发展需求,才能办出人民真正满意的高中教育。

Senior High School Education Development in China: Characteristics and Enlightenment
CHU Zhaohui
National Institute of Education Sciences, Beijing 100088, China
Abstract:
China’s senior high school education has made great achievements. Before 1979, it featured political orientation. Shortage in resources made senior high school education equivalent to higher education in China. After 1979, senior high schools turned to be score-oriented. While primary school and junior high school became compulsory and in oversupply in succession, the growth of senior high school was still slow. The 9-year compulsory education and the expansion of enrollment in colleges and universities in 1999 have driven the rapid development of senior highs. At the same time, there have also been deviations in senior high education orientation characterized by the “county senior high phenomenon,” as well as the contradiction between the supply and demand in graded supply. Fair, diversified and quality education have become the main task for senior highs since then, and have affected the teaching, management and evaluation of them. At present, senior high education is still heavily exam-oriented. It is restricted by a single evaluation mode, i.e. college entrance examination, and a single school running mode, which makes it difficult to establish a healthy educational ecology. Only diversity in school-running subjects and in management and evaluation can effectively enhance supply, provide diversified choices of senior high education resources, form a self-improvement mechanism to improve quality and efficiency through selection, and meet the diverse growth and development needs of students. Only in this way can senior high education truly satisfy the people.

收稿日期: 2019-11-29
基金项目:

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