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在线阅读 --哲学社会科学版 2020年1期《从认识论到知识型——40年文学理论提问方式之转变》
从认识论到知识型——40年文学理论提问方式之转变--[在线阅读]
邢建昌
河北师范大学 文学院, 河北 石家庄 050024
起止页码: 46--58页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.psse.2020.01.004
摘要
40年文学理论提问方式发生了从认识论到知识型的转变。新时期之初,文学理论占统治地位的文学解释模式是政治功利论和认识论的。新时期文学理论通过质疑形象思维(即形象认识)和"文艺为政治服务"来开启理论探讨的道路。但是,新时期文学理论基本思维模式仍然是认识论的,所谓审美反映不过是强调反映主体的能动性罢了。认识论框架里得出的文学认识,是通过概念分析而建立起来的"逻辑的知",远不是活生生的文学。文学理论的自觉,是在20世纪90年代伴随着"有思想的学术"和"有学术的思想"的讨论而确立的,主要表现为两个维度上的探讨:一是对过去那种建立在特定哲学基础上的、依托于某种"元叙事"的文学理论的怀疑;二是提出了文学理论知识的"合法性危机"。从知识型看文学理论的演进,是现代问题意识建立的一个结果。理论对问题的解释依赖于特定的知识背景、知识系统或知识型。所谓问题,也就是在特定的知识背景下的提问。所谓文学理论创新,主要是一种知识学模式的创新。从这个角度看,20世纪90年代以后本土文化研究实践正是一种与既有文学理论完全不同的知识生产方式,一种"独特的问题架构"。40年文学理论从认识论到知识型的转变,是回应时代挑战的结果,它取得了众所瞩目的成绩,但也留下了有待清理的问题。这是我们继续上路必须面对的。

From Epistemology to the Form of Knowledge——Changes in Literary Theory Question Formulation in Recent 40 years
XING Jianchang
College of Chinese Language and Literature, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024, China
Abstract:
In the past 40 years, question formulation in the study of literary theory has changed from epistemology to the form of knowledge. At the beginning of the New Era, the dominant literary interpretation mode was political utilitarianism and epistemology. The so-called aesthetic reflection only emphasized the initiative of the reflection subject. The literary knowledge obtained in the epistemological framework is "logical knowledge" established through conceptual analysis, far from being living literature. The consciousness of literary theory was established in the 1990s along with the discussion of "academic work imbued with thinking" and "thinking in an academic way." It is mainly expressed in two dimensions:one is the suspicion of the past literary theory based on specific philosophy and relying on some kind of "meta-narration"; the second is to raise the question of the "legitimacy crisis" of literary theoretical knowledge. Looking at the evolution of literary theory from the perspective of the form of knowledge is a result of the establishment of modern consciousness of problems. The so-called problem is a question raised under a specific knowledge background. The so-called innovation of literary theory is mainly the innovation of the schema of the form of knowledge. From this perspective, the research and practice of Chinese native culture since the 1990s is a completely different way of knowledge production and a "unique problem framework."

收稿日期: 2019-10-10
基金项目: 国家社会科学基金项目"近40年文学理论知识生成机制的反思性研究与文献整理"(项目编号:19BZW002)

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