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在线阅读 --教育科学版 2019年3期《人工智能下的劳动就业迭代及人力资本投资》
人工智能下的劳动就业迭代及人力资本投资--[在线阅读]
张学英
天津职业技术师范大学 经济管理学院, 天津 300222
起止页码: 75--83页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.ese.2019.03.013
摘要
根据人类劳动活动以体能为主或以智能为主、呈规则性还是非规则性特征两个维度,可将其划分为规则性体能劳动、规则性智能劳动、非规则性智能劳动和非规则性体能劳动四类。人工智能替代人力促使劳动者从最初所属劳动领域向后、向上进行就业迭代,人工智能对人类劳动的替代、增强、调整和重构对劳动力市场形成持续的冲击,引发劳动者的就业变迁、工作福利变迁。人工智能拓展了劳动者人力资本的内涵,既涵盖传统意义上以知识和技术为核心的认知能力人力资本,也包括应对技术变革、生产创新、企业制度变革等非均衡的非认知人力资本。面对来自人工智能的冲击,劳动者成功实现就业迭代的前提是拥有匹配的人力资本投资及策略:一是围绕人工智能拓宽认知人力资本的辐射面,并同时提升非认知人力资本水平;二是基于自身的劳动就业迭代需求选择防范型或补偿型人力资本投资策略以应对就业风险。

The employment iterations in the context of artificial intelligence
ZHANG Xue-ying
Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin 300222, China
Abstract:
Labor activities can be described on two dimensions, physical energy-based or intelligence-based, regular or irregular. Thus labor activities can be divided into four categories:regularly physical energy labor, regularly intelligent labor, irregularly intelligent labor, and irregularly physical energy labor. That the artificial intelligence replaces the manpower pushes laborers to iterate forwardly and/or upwardly from the original labor field to another. At the same time, the artificial intelligence replaces, strengthens, adjusts and restructures human labor which triggers a continual shock on the labor market in both employment and work welfare. The artificial intelligence expands the connotation of human capital in tradition, but also non-cognitive human capital focusing on abilities to cope with the disequilibria such as technological change, production innovation and enterprise institutional reforms. Faced with the impact from the artificial intelligence, the prerequisite of successful employment iteration is to match human capital investment with strategy.

收稿日期: 2019-03-11
基金项目:

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