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在线阅读 --哲学社会科学版 2016年4期《美国加州空气污染治理的历史演进及其实质》
美国加州空气污染治理的历史演进及其实质--[在线阅读]
刘向阳, 王晶苹
河北师范大学 历史文化学院, 河北 石家庄 050024
起止页码: 125--136页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.psse.2016.04.017
摘要
20世纪40年代以来持续数十年的洛杉矶光化学烟雾事件,是第二次工业革命后美国镀金时代传统经济和汽车工业发展的必然产物。光化学烟雾事件严重的危害性迫使加州最早走上了卓有成效的空气污染治理道路。特别是在机动车污染控制方面,加州享有相当的自主权,它的政策往往具备先进性和创新性,在美国乃至当时的世界都起着引导性作用。从治理对象看,加州经历了从治理固定污染源到治理移动污染源的转变。从治理主体看,加州经历了州级政策先行、建章立制、树立典范到联邦参与、互相促进、上下协同共治的转变。从治理思路看,经历了从纯粹的命令管制型向市场刺激的方式转变。不过更加引人深思的是围绕加州空气污染治理政策背后的利益博弈,地方经济精英、政府管制和民众诉求之间存在诸多矛盾,使得空气污染的治理本质上变成了各种利益关系的调节。对这一问题的研究有利于深化我们对环境问题的认识,进而助益于我国的环境治理与生态文明建设。

A historical study of the control of air pollution in California in USA
LIU Xiang-yang, WANG Jing-ping
School of History, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024, China
Abstract:
The photochemical smog episodes last for decades in Los Angles since 1940s as a result of the traditional economy and automobile development during the golden times after the second industrial revolution. The severe harms of the events force California to take effective measures to control the air pollution particularly caused by motor vehicles. California enjoys a high degree of autonomy for progressive and creative policies to deal with the fixed and mobile pollution sources. This paper further studies the Californian control of air pollution from such aspects of subjects and methods. All this is considered as useful for Chinese environmental treatment and ecological construction.

收稿日期: 2016-06-15
基金项目:

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