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在线阅读 --哲学社会科学版 2016年3期《自然灾害影响之下的晚清中国农业》
自然灾害影响之下的晚清中国农业--[在线阅读]
刘启振, 王思明
南京农业大学 中华农业文明研究院, 江苏 南京 210095
起止页码: 5--19页
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.psse.2016.03.001
摘要
晚清时期,中国农业灾害频仍。综合运用多种文献资料,从消极与积极两个向度探讨了自然灾害对晚清农业生产和农村社会诸方面的影响。农业灾害的发生导致土地荒芜,作物受损;农业发展进程迟滞(耕畜减少、土地贫瘠化加重、农业生产能力下降);耕作制度变迁;饿殍遍野,流民四起;农民生活日趋贫困;不良商贩趁火打劫,对农产品囤积居奇,加剧灾情。然而,自然灾害的肆虐又迫使传统农业发生变革,逐步向近代农业靠拢:倒逼主政者反思农业政策;加速自然经济的解体和专治制度的灭亡;采用各种措施,进行农业改进活动。从长远看,这对于整个国家和社会的发展又是有利的。

Chinese agriculture under the impacts of natural disasters in the late Qing dynasty
LIU Qi-zhen, WANG Si-ming
Chinese Agricultural Civilization Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China
Abstract:
Chinese agriculture is frequently confronted with natural disasters by the late Qing dynasty. The researchers conduct the literature review and positive and negative dimensions of study of the impacts brought by the natural disasters to the agriculture. It is found that the disasters result in desolation of the farmland with loss of harvest. Agriculture becomes stagnant, number of cattle decreasing, farmland worsened and agricultural production yield falling. Besides, with the change of the landing institution, farmers begin to leave their homes for survival, but dying in hordes out of famine. Worse still, vendors are vicious by hoarding and profiteering. All this leads to the fact that agricultural policies have to undergo more changes, to speed up the death of the natural economy and political monopoly. And revolution becomes inevitable for the entire society.

收稿日期: 2016-03-10
基金项目: 清华大学·农业部农研中心重大项目"中国近现代农业与农村变迁研究"(项目编号:CIRS2012-1)

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